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Helicopters

What are some key points I should know when studying helicopters?

1. There are two types of helicopters, single main rotor which is most common, and tandem rotor.

2. Rotary wings provide lift both from the use of wings and from the power from the main rotor.

3. In a single main rotor, the main rotor is counterweighted to make it rotate in the direction opposite to the lift it creates.

4. Many different materials are used for the main rotor blade, but all are made to reduce friction with the air they are cutting through.

5. A helicopter’s powerplant consists of one engine. 6. A helicopter is lighter than an airplane because there is no heavy fuselage carrying the lift.

7. Helicopter landing gears allow for both vertical and broadside landings.

8. The general rule of thumb for airspeed and general information that has to do with the power and use of the power for flying for helicopters is the same as it is for planes; convert knots to miles per hour.

9. Helicopters can be adapted to carry much heavier loads than planes because they operate much closer to the ground than planes do.

10. Helicopter blades are controlled to increase or decrease lift by changing pitch, angle of attack, rotor speed, or airflow across the blade.

What are helicopters used for?

Helicopters are used in many different ways for many different reasons. They are essential in disaster relief operations, law enforcement work, fighting forest fires, fighting wars, delivering patients to the hospital, carrying blood over long distances, transporting tourists to remote or hard to get to areas, fighting wildfires, and transporting food and supplies to remote areas.

What is a main rotor?

The main rotor in a chopper, also called the “airfoil,” is the large, heavy blade in front of the blades, or the propeller in the back. This is the blade that generates the lift for a chopper.

What is a tail rotor?

The tail rotor at the rear of a helicopter is a smaller offset rotor that helps the machine fly more responsively and helps control the chopper’s directional stability.

How is the rotor controlled?

There are mechanical hinges to control rotor speed but most control of the rotor is through specially shaped blades that feature various degrees of pitch, angle of attack, or blade rotation.

What are the main types of helicopters?

The main types of helicopters are single main rotor that is most common, low to the ground tandem-rotor, a tandem rotor that are not as low to the ground, HEMS, RC helicopter, AH-64 Apache, UH-60 Black Hawk, and Velociraptor.

How do helicopters get started?

A helicopter needs only one engine to get started, like most other aircraft.

What are rotary wings?

Rotary wings provide lift both from use of wings and from the power from the main rotor.

How is a helicopter constructed?

A helicopter’s powerplant consists of one engine, a fuel tank, a reserve oil tank, a manual oil pump for reserve, the main rotor-wing with counterweights, a tail rotor-wing with counterweights, a fuel line, a hydraulic fluid reservoir, a collective pitch servo, cyclic pitch servo, a throttle servo, a fuel servo, a rotary swash plate, a heading change servo, a power glider to resecure fuel, a center of gravity stabilizer, a landing gear that allows for both vertical and broadside landings, a gas pedal, a to/from selector switch, a fuel selector modulator, an oil selector switch, an annunciator, a master system warning relay, an engine warning indicator, an annunciation switch, a fuel pump selector, a reserve oil pump selector, a governor control switch, an auxiliary governor control relay, a governor relay.

What are rotary wings?

Rotary wings provide lift both from use of wings and from the power from the main rotor.

What are extended rotor tips?

Although extended rotor tips are not found on other types of helicopters other than the H-21s, they are blades that are extended with metal bands to give the rotor more stability in flight.

What are the mechanics of a helicopter’s blades?

Helicopters blades are controlled to increase or decrease lift by changing pitch, angle of attack, rotor speed, or airflow across the blades.

How can a helicopter be maintained?

Keeping blades from seizing by using a lubricant sprayer, using bolts to tighten bolts where bolts need to be tight, adjusting rotor head by turning a nut below the rotor head with a wrench, lubricating a rocker arm, inspecting a fuel filter, inspecting a fuel line, checking for hydraulic oil level, topping off any fluid, inspecting the swashplate for wear, checking the life of the spark plugs, fitting an alignment key (see Stone Stone bearings) for fuel to flow freely, draining the power hydraulic system, inspections, checking for punctures to the tank.

What is a main rotor blade?

The main rotor in a chopper, also called the “airfoil,” is the large, heavy blade in front of the blades, or the propeller in the back. This is the blade that generates the lift for a chopper.

What are some advantages of helicopters?

Helicopters are able to pull off tasks that planes are not capable of because of their low altitude. They are also able to carry heavier loads. Helicopters are essential in disaster relief operations, law enforcement work, fighting forest fires, fighting wars, delivering patients to the hospital, carrying blood over long distances, transporting tourists to remote or hard to get to areas, fighting wildfires, and transporting food and supplies to remote areas.

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